First entering service with Eastern Air Lines in 1959, the Lockheed L-188 Electra was a leap forward in airline technology when it appeared. Selling well right out of the box (as the below ad indicates — 144 initial orders) the Electra was bound to be an overnight success. And it was — for a time.
Unfortunately, a design defect with the engine mounts caused an oscillation to be transmitted from the outboard engines to the wings, vibrating the wings in a severe up and down motion — until the wings would tear right off the plane.
Three Electras were lost in this way in the fourteen months between February 1959 and March 1960. While the defect was tracked down and remedied in existing planes, and all new ones were built with the modifications, only a total of 170 Electras ended up being manufactured.
Despite the stigma from the early failures, Electras went on to serve long-lasting careers as freighters. Moreover, the military version — the P3 Orion — ended up selling over 700 aircraft, many of which are still in operation today, over 50 years after their original appearance.
The only practical, economically sound air transportation machine for “short-to-medium haul” airline routes!
“Short-to-medium haul” What is it?
Route patterns divide into “long-haul,” “medium-haul,” and “short-haul”… each with different characteristics… each requiring a specialized air transport to fit its needs. Short and long-haul characteristics and the kind of machine needed are most clearly defined. Medium-haul is between the two, and is less clearly definable.
(1) Long-haul: a pattern of long, non-stop flights between big cities with big airports — generating heavy traffic.
(2) Short-to-medium haul: involves a varied pattern with many intermediate stops — with lower flying altitudes for shorter periods – and between large, medium and small cities… some with small airports and with traffic varying from very heavy to very thin.
(1) Requires the large turbo-jet powered airplane, flying at high cruise speeds and high altitudes for long periods.
(2) Requires a highly specialized, flexible machine of just the right size and carefully tailored to fit “short-to-medium” haul needs. Emphasis must be on economics since airline unit operating costs are inherently higher in this area.
Since 35% to 65% of air traffic travels on “short-to-medium” haul routes, profit or loss on this portion of the system determines airline financial success.
The Electra is the only practical air transport in the market or under development, explicitly designed from the very start to fit the particular functional needs of “short-to-medium haul.” It was designed and produced by the greatest team in aviation history:
Aircraft – by Lockheed (California Division)
Power – by General Motors (Allison Division)
Airline functional counsel by:
Eastern Air Lines
(among the largest, most profitable airlines in the world in the “short-to-medium haul” field)
Aeronaves de Mexico
Ansett/ANA of Australia
Eastern Air Lines
Garuda Indonesian Airways
KLM Royal Dutch Airlines
PSA – Pacific Southwest Airlines
Western Air Lines
(Total of 144 Electras on order – for over $300,000,000)
This outstanding team, by employing the most advanced aircraft and turbine power technology in the proper combination for the required job in the turbine age, developed and produced the Electra.